Open Access
Numéro
Ann Toxicol Anal
Volume 23, Numéro 4, 2011
Page(s) 193 - 204
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/ata/2011128
Publié en ligne 15 décembre 2011
  1. Giroud C, Battistella G, Thomas A, Maeder P, Mall JF, Annoni JM, Appenzeller M, Buclin T, Staub C, Mangin P, Fornari E, Favrat B. Effets du cannabis sur les fumeurs occasionnels. Ann Toxicol Anal. 2011; 23(S1) : S1–S8. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences] [Google Scholar]
  2. Journal Officiel de la République Française, 4 février 2003 : 2103 p. (loi n° 2003-87 du 3 février 2003 relative à la conduite sous l’influence de substances ou plantes classées comme stupéfiants). [Google Scholar]
  3. Journal Officiel de la République Française, 1er avril 2003 : 5702 p. (Décret n° 2003-293 du 31 mars 2003 relatif à la sécurité routière et modifiant le code de procédure pénale et le code de la route). [Google Scholar]
  4. Mura P, Kintz P, Ludes B, Gaulier JM, Marquet P, Martin-Dupont S, Vincent F, Kaddour A, Goullé JP, Nouveau J, Moulsma M, Tilhet-Coartet S, Pourrat O. Comparison of the prevalence of alcohol, cannabis and other drugs between 900 injured drivers and 900 control subjects : results of a French collaborative study. Forensic Sci Int. 2003; 133 : 79–85. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  5. Beck F, Guignard R, Richard JB, Tovar ML, Spilka S. Les niveaux d’usage des drogues en France en 2010. Observatoire Français des Drogues et des Toxicomanies. 2011; 76 : 1–6. [Google Scholar]
  6. Mura P, Brunet B, Favreau F, Hauet T. Cannabis et accidents de la voie publique : résultats de dernières études françaises. Ann Pharm Fr. 2006; 64 : 192–196. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  7. Mura P, Chatelain C, Dumestre V, Gaulier JM, Ghysel MH, Lacroix C, Kergueris MF, Lhermitte M, Moulsma M, Pépin G, Vincent F, Kintz P. Use of drugs of abuse in less than 30-year-old drivers killed in a road crash in France : A spectacular increase for cannabis, cocaine and amphetamines. Forensic Sci Int. 2006; 160 : 168–172. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  8. Duverneuil C, Etting I, Mathieu B, Paraire F, Lorin de la Grandmaison G, Rambaud C, Durigon M, De Mazancourt P,Alvarez JC. Intérêt des analyses toxicologiques lors de recherche des causes de décès (résultats de 358 analyses). Ann Toxicol Anal. 2005; XVII : 187–193. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences] [Google Scholar]
  9. Goullé JP, Mura P, Pépin G, Dumestre-Toulet V, Kintz P. On ne meurt pas du cannabis... mais il tue! Toxicorama. 1999; 11 : 12–16. [Google Scholar]
  10. Reid MJ, Bornheim LM. Cannabinoid-induced alterations in brain disposition of drugs of abuse. Biochem Pharmacol. 2001; 61 : 1357–1367. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  11. Mura P, Piriou A. CANNABIS. in : kinzt (coordinateur), toxicologie et pharmacologie médicolégales. Amsterdam, Oxford, Paris, New York, Tokyo, Elsevier. 1998 : 543–554 [Google Scholar]
  12. Barnett G, Licko V, Hompson T. Behavioral pharmacokinetics of marijuana. Psychophamarcology. 1985; 85 : 51–56. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  13. Chiang CW, Barnett G. Marijuana effect and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol plasma level. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1984; 36(2) : 234–238. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  14. Cone EJ, Huestis MA. Relating blood concentrations of tetrahydrocannabinol and metabolites to pharmacologic effects and time of marijuana usage. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. 1993; 15(6) : 527–532. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  15. Costentin J. Le cannabis – données neurobiologiques récentes éclairant les perturbations de la conduite des véhicules. Ann Pharm Fr. 2006; 64 : 148–159. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  16. Cirimele V, Sachs H, Kintz P, Mangin P. Testing human hair for cannabis. Rapid screening procedure for the simultaneous identification of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabinol and cannabidiol. J Anal Toxicol. 1996; 20 : 13–16. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  17. Hayakawa K, Mishima K, Hazekawa M, Sano K, Irie K, et al. Cannabidiol potentiates pharmacological effects of Δ9-tétrahydrocannabinol via CB1 receptor-dependent mechanism. Brain Res. 2008; 1188 : 157–164. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  18. Mechoulam R, Parker LA, Gallily R. Cannabidiol : an overview of some pharmacological aspects. J Clin Pharmacol. 2002; 42 : 11S–19S. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  19. Varvel SA, Wiley JL, Yang R, Bridgen DT, Long K, Lichtman AH, Martin BR. Interactions between THC and cannabidiol in mouse models of cannabinoid activity. Psychopharmacology. 2006; 186 : 226–234. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  20. Brunet B, Doucet C, Venisse N, Hauet T, Hébrard W, Papet Y, Mauco G, Mura P. Validation of Large White Pig as an animal model for the study of cannabinoids metabolism : Application to the study of THC distribution in tissues. Forensic Sci Int. 2006; 161 : 169–174. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  21. Kemp PM, Abukhalaf IK, Manno JE, Manno BR, Alford DD, Abusada GA. Cannabinoids in humans. I. Analysis of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and six metabolites in plasma and urine using GC-MS. J Anal Toxicol. 1995; 19(5) : 285–291. [Google Scholar]
  22. Mura P, Kintz P, Dumestre V, Raul S, Hauet T. THC can be detected in brain while absent in blood. J Anal Toxicol. 2005; 29. [Google Scholar]
  23. Hollister LE, Gillespie HK, Ohlsson A, Lindgren JE, Wahlen A andAgurell S. Do plasma concentrations of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol reflect the degree of intoxication? J Clin Pharmacol. 1981; 21 : 171S–177S. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  24. Brown SM, Waer-Miller J, Mackie K. Cloning and molecular characterization of the rat CB2 cannainoid receptor. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002; 1576 : 255–264. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  25. Herkenham M, Lynn AB, Johnson MR, Melvin LS, De Costa BR,Rice KC. Characterization and localization of cannabinoid receptors in rat brain : a quantitative in vitro autoradiographic study. Neurosci. 1991; 11 : 563–583. [Google Scholar]
  26. Tsou K, Brown S, Sanudo-Pena MC, Mackie K, Walker JM. Immunohistochemical distribution of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the rat central nervous system. Neurosci. 1998; 83 : 393–411. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  27. Senn R, Keren O, Hefetz A, Sarne Y. Long-term deficits induced by a single, extremely low dose of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) : Behavioral, pharmacological and biochemical studies in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2008; 88 : 230–237. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  28. Egerton A, Allison C, Brett RR, Pratt JA. Cannabinoids and prefrontal cortical function : insights from preclinical studies. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2006; 30 : 680–695. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  29. Teske J, Putzbach K, Engewald W, Müller RK. Determination of cannabinoids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and large-volume programmed-temperature vaporiser injection using 25 μ L of biological fluid. J Chromatogr B. 2002; 772 : 299–306. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  30. Steinmeyer S, Bregel D, Warth S, Kraemer T, Moeller MR. Improved and validated method fort he determination of Δ9-tétrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC in serum, and in human liver microsomal preparations using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B. 2002; 772 : 239–248. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  31. Nicolas O, Robert D, Kelly MT, Bressolle F. Traitements de l’échantillon biologique avant l’analyse chromatographique. Applications à la pharmacocinétique et à la toxicologie. Ann Toxicol Anal. 2004; XVI : 199–213. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences] [Google Scholar]
  32. Nadulski T, Sporkert F, Schnelle M, Stadelmann AM, Roser P, Schefter T, Pragst F. Simultaneous and sensitive analysis of THC, 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, CBD and CBN by GC-MS in plasma after oral application of small doses of THC and cannabis extract. J Anal Toxicol. 2005; 29(8) : 782–789. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  33. Harvey DJ, Brown NK. Comparative in vitro metabolism of the cannabinoids. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1991; 40(3) : 533–540. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  34. McMahon LR, Koek W. Differences in the relative potency of SR 141716A and AM251 as antagonists of various in vivo effects of cannabiniod agonists in C57BL/6J mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007; 569 : 70–76. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  35. Wiley JL, Martin BR. Cannabinoid pharmacological properties common to other centrally acting drugs. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003; 471 : 185–193. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  36. Tseng AH, Harding JW, Craft RM. Pharmacokinetic factors in sex differences in Δ9-tétrahydrocannabinol-induced behavioural effects in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2004; 154 : 77–83. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  37. Pope HG, Gruber AJ, Hudson JI, Huestis MA, Yurgelun-Todd D. Neuropsychological performance in long-term cannabis users. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001; 58 : 909–915. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  38. Schubart CD, Sommer IE, Van Gastel WA,Goetgebuer RL, Kahn RS, Boks MP. Cannabis with high cannabidiol content is associated with fewer psychotic experiences. Schizophr Res. 2011; 130(1–3) : 216–221. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]