EDP Sciences logo
Open Access
Ann Toxicol Anal
Volume 24, Numéro 2, 2012
Page(s) 97 - 102
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/ata/2012006
Publié en ligne 22 juin 2012
  1. Hofer CA, Smith JK, Tenholder MF. Verapamil intoxication: a literature review of overdoses and discussion of therapeutic options. Am J Med. 1993; 95(4): 431–438. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  2. Sawicki W, Janicki S. Pharmacokinetics of verapamil and its metabolite norverapamil from a buccal drug formulation. Int J Pharm. 2002; 238(1-2): 181–189. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  3. Rousu T, Herttuainen J, Tolonen A. Comparison of triple quadrupole, hybrid linear ion trap triple quadrupole, time-of-flight and LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometers in drug discovery phase metabolite screening and identification in vitro – amitriptyline and verapamil as model compounds. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2010; 24: 939–957. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  4. Tracqui A, Tournoud C, Kintz P, Villain M, Kummerlen C, Sauder P, Ludes B. HPLC/MS findings in a fatality involving sustained-release verapamil. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2003; 22: 515–521. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  5. Buckley CD, Aronson JK. Prolonged half-life of verapamil in a case of overdose: implications for therapy. Br J clin Pharmac. 1995; 39: 680–683. [Google Scholar]
  6. Oe H, Taniura T, Ohgitani N. A case of severe verapamil overdose. Jpn Circ J. 1998; 62: 72–76. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  7. Kirsten R, Nelson K, Kirsten D, Heintz B. Clinical pharmacokinetics of vasodilators. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1998; 34: 457–482. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  8. Follath F, Ha HR, Schütz E, Bühler F. Pharmacokinetics of conventional and slow-release verapamil. Br J Clin Pharmac. 1986; 21: 149–153. [Google Scholar]
  9. Guitton J, Buronfosse T, Desage M, Flinois JP, Perdrix JP, Brazier JL, Beaune P. Possible involvement of multiple human cytochrome P450 isoforms in the liver metabolism of propofol. Br J Anaesth. 1998; 80: 788–795. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  10. Mueller DM, Duretz B, Espourteille FA, Rentsch KM. Development of a fully automated toxicological LC-MSn screening system in urine using online extraction with turbulent flow chromatography. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2010; 400: 89–100. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  11. Mueller DM, Rentsch KM. Online extraction LC-MSn method for the detection of drugs in urine, serum and heparinized plasma. Toxichem Krimtech. 2011; 78(Special Issue): 324–328. [Google Scholar]
  12. Sun L, Zhang SQ, Zhong DF. In vitro identification of metabolites of verapamil in rat liver microsomes. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2004; 25(1): 121–128. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  13. Walles M, Thum T, Levsen K, Borlak J. Metabolism of verapamil: 24 new phase I and phase II metabolites identified in cell cultures of rat hepatocytes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chrom B. 2003; 798: 265–274. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  14. Bronstein AC, Spyker DA, Cantilena LR Jr,Green JL, Rumack BH, Heard SE. 2007 annual report of the american association of poison control centers’ national poison data system (npds): 25th annual report. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2008; 46(10): 927–1057. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  15. Bronstein AC, Spyker DA, Cantilena LR Jr, Green JL, Rumack BH, Giffin SL. 2008 annual report of the american association of poison control centers’ national poison data system (npds): 26th annual report. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2009; 47: 911–1084. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  16. Salhanick SD, Shannon MW. Management of calcium channel antagonist overdose. Drug Saf. 2003; 26: 65–79. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  17. Lapostolle F, Bourdain F, Adnet F, Benaissa A, Muszynski J, Baud F. Intoxication aiguë par le vérapamil. Proposition d’une stratégie de prise en charge thérapeutique. Ann Fr Anesth Réanim. 2000; 19: 607–610. [Google Scholar]
  18. Choi DH, Shin WG, Choi JS. Drug interaction between oral atorvastatin and verapamil in healthy subjects: effects of atorvastatin on the pharmacokinetics of verapamil and norverapamil. Eur J Clin pharmacol. 2008; 64: 445–449. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  19. Toffoli G, Robieux I, Fantin D, Gigante M, Frustaci S, Nicolosi GL, De Cicco M,Boiocchi M. Non-linear pharmacokinetics of high-dose intravenous verapamil. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1997; 44: 255–260. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  20. Kelly JG, O’Malley K. Clinical pharmacokinetics of calcium antagonists. An update. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1992; 22(6): 416–433. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  21. Buckley N, Dawson A, Reith D. Controlled release drugs in overdose: clinical considerations. Drug Safety. 1995; 12(1): 73–84. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  22. Buckley N, Dawson AH, Howarth D, Whyte IM. Slow-release verapamil poisoning. Use of polyethylene glycol whole-bowel lavage and high-dose calcium. Med J Aust. 1993; 158(3): 202–204. [Google Scholar]
  23. Below E, Bockholdt B, Hoffmann U. Fatal overdose with sustained-release verapamil and opipramol: a case report. Toxichem Krimtech. 2011; 78: 347–352. [Google Scholar]
  24. Buckley N, Dawson A, Whyte I. Calcium channel blockers. Medicine. 2007; 35(11): 599–602. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  25. Mégarbane B, Karyo S, Abidi K, Delhotal-Landes B, Aout M, Sauder P, Baud FJ. Predictors of mortality in verapamil overdose: usefulness of serum verapamil concentrations. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2011; 108: 385–389. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]