Open Access
Ann Toxicol Anal
Volume 23, Number 4, 2011
Page(s) 205 - 210
Published online 12 December 2011
  1. Gupta PC, Ray CS. Epidemiology of Betel quid usage. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2004; 33 (suppl): 31S–36S. [Google Scholar]
  2. Qidwai W, Saleheen D, Saleem S, Andrades M, Azam SI. Are our people healths conscious? Results of a patients survey in Karachi, Pakistan. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2003; 15(1): 10–13. [Google Scholar]
  3. Mahmood Z. Chewing and Smoking habits of the people of Karachi – 1981. J Pak Med Assoc. 1982; 32(2): 34–37. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  4. Norton SA. Betel: Consumption and consequences. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998; 38(1): 81–88. [Google Scholar]
  5. Mack TM. The pan-Asian paan problem. Lancet. 2001; 357: 1638–1639. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  6. Nair U, Bartsch H, Nair J. Alert for an epidemic of oral cancer due to use of the betel quid substitutes gutkha and pan masala: a review of agents and causative mechanisms. Mutagenesis. 2004; 19(4): 251–262 [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  7. Kumar S. Panmasala chewing induces deterioration in oral health and its implications in carcinogenesis. Toxicol Methods. 2008; 18(9): 665–677. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  8. Aruna DS, Rajesh G, Mohanty VR. Insights into pictorial health warnings on tobacco product packages marketed in Uttar Pradesh, India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2010; 11(2): 539–543. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  9. Rani M, Bonu S, Jha P, Nguyen SN, Jamjoum L. Tobacco use in India: prevalence and predictors of smoking and chewing in a national cross sectional household survey. Tob control. 2003; 12: e4 doi:10.1136/tc.12.4.e4. [Google Scholar]
  10. IARC. Monograph on evaluation of carcinogenic risk of chemical to human: Tobacco habits other than smoking: Betel quid and areca nut chewing and some related nitrosamine. IARC. 1985; 37: 141–200 [Google Scholar]
  11. Maurer HH. Screening procedures for simultaneous detection of several drug classes used for high throughput toxicological analyses and doping control. A review. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. 2000; 3(6): 467–480 [Google Scholar]
  12. ICH Topic Q 2 B Validation of Analytical Procedures: Methodology. The European Agency for the evaluation of Medicinal Products. Available at: London: ICH Technical coordination, 1996. [Google Scholar]
  13. Guidance for Industry Bioanalytical Method validation US Department of Health and Human Services. Food and Drug Administration. May 2001. Available at: [Google Scholar]
  14. De Orsi D, Pellegrini M, Marchei E, Nebuloni P, Gallinella B, Scaravelli G, Martufi A, Gagliardi L, Pichini S. High performance liquid chromatography-diode array and electrospray-mass spectrometry analysis of vardenafil, sildenafil, tadalafil, testosterone and local anesthetics in cosmetic creams sold on the Internet web sites. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2009; 50: 362–369. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  15. De Orsi D, Pellegrini M, Pichini S, Mattioli D, Marchei E, Gagliardi L. High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array and electrospray-mass spectrometry analysis of non-allowed substances in cosmetic products for preventing hair loss and other hormone-dependent skin diseases. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2008; 48: 641–648. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  16. Pichini S, Marchei E, Palmi I, Pellegrini M, Pacifici R, Zuccaro P. “Smart Drugs”– English edition. Istituto Superiore di Sanità 2011. Available at\special {::tag lxir empty(lxir-formule){id=772} {content==}}\global \advance \xTagcount by 1\relax 90{\&} lang\special {::tag lxir empty(lxir-formule){id=772} {content==}}\global \advance \xTagcount by 1\relax 1{\&}tipo\special {::tag lxir empty(lxir-formule){id=772} {content==}}\global \advance \xTagcount by 1\relax 19 [Google Scholar]
  17. Winstock AR, Trivedy CR, Warnakulasuriya Kaas Peters TJ. A dependency syndrome related to areca nut use: some medical and psychological aspects among areca nut users in the Gujarat community in the UK. Addict Biol. 2000; 15(2): 173–179. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  18. Pickwell SM, Schimelpfening S, Palinkas LA. ‘Betelmania’. Betel quid chewing by Cambodian women in the United States and its potential health effects. West J Med. 1994; 160(4): 326–330. [Google Scholar]